Addressing interactions and limitations, this article compares structural and activity-related differences between intelligence organizations of states and violent non-state actors (VNSA) and seeks to provide explanations and effects of the distinct setup.
The First Battle of Bull Run in the American Civil War (1861), the Battle of Tannenberg in World War I (1914), the Battle of Midway in the Pacific War (1942), the Inchon Landing on the Korean peninsula (1950) or the Six-Day War around Israel (1967) – these are a few of the numerous examples where undoubted, heard and understood intelligence played a decisive role in violent conflicts. This article explains key factors to improve intelligence receptivity.
The case of the 2016 German Foreign Intelligence Reform and the following constitutional complaint show one of these rare examples of well-aligned legal advocacy in a field where Human Rights’ defenders are usually bound by the intelligence agencies’ good will to cooperate. After a brief introduction to the field of Human Rights and intelligence, the article focuses on the lawsuit against the 2016 reform, provides an analysis of the advocacy strategy and closes with lessons learned.
Throughout the years, the skyrocketing need for privacy developed into a race between those who sought for anonymity and those who have a profound interest to see through the privacy barriers. One famous instrument in the privacy toolbox is the decentralized, layered encryption approach of the “The Onion Router”, widely known as “Tor”.
Describing the problems of cyber-buccaneering, this article uses the example of the famous, Russia-backed GameOver ZeuS botnet (GOZ) to explain the concept of a botnet and the GameOver ZeuS specific attack vector before elaborating on the cat-and-mouse game of successful takedowns and ineffective cybercrime persecution.
In 2015 the German Bundestag was attack - most certainly by a Russian hacking group. A combination of social engineering and trojan malware opened the door and allowed attackers to extract official documents of members of parliament, their parliamentary groups as well as the parliament’s administration. All of this, unrecognized – possibly over weeks. This article shows why the pain is not not gone and likely to return.
The File Transfer Protocol, widely know as FTP, serves a prime example of one of the oldest Internet protocols that have initially been designed for smaller-scale purposes, therefore posed major security risks, and have eventually been developed further to account for the unforeseeable scale that the Internet is nowadays working on.
Adding to the omnipresent discussion of Artificial Intelligence (AI), this paper examines whether spiking US venture capital developed into a dotcom-like AI bubble. Analysing venture capital, patent, and stock market data from 1990 to 2018, the paper finds little evidence for an AI-related bubble. To avoid throwing all caution of AI bubbles to the winds, the paper recommends two policy approaches to take advantage of the development and avoid harmful future bubble spread.
Following its research question “What welfare production regime can the Russian Federation be assigned to?”, this paper applies the “social protection/skill regime” concept, developed by Estevez-Abe et al. (2001), to the Russian Federation. OECD and World Bank data show that Russia provides a relatively high employment protection (EP) and dangerously low unemployment protection (UP), who are both mismatched with the industry-specific skill regime provided by state education.